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GNSS is often inaccurate and satellite signals are not always available, which results in ambiguous situations. In order to reduce their negative effects on train-borne localization, this work proposes an approach for the detection of tracks, turnouts, and branching directions solely from 2d lidar sensor measurements. The experimental evaluation shows highly correct and complete results. In summary, these detections are sufficient to reduce ambiguity problems in train-borne localization.