Animal fibres from South American camelids and other fibre or wool bearing species provide important products for use by the human population. The contemporary context includes the competition with petrocarbon-based artificial fibres and concern about excessive persistence of these in the natural environment. Animal fibres present highly valuable characteristics for sustainable production and processing as they are both natural and renewable. On the other hand, their use is recognised to depend on availability of appropriate quality and quantity, the production of which is underpinned by a range of sciences and processes which support development to meet market requirements. This collection of papers combines international experience from South and North America, China and Europe. The focus lies on domestic South American camelids (alpacas, llamas) and also includes research on sheep and goats. It considers latest advances in sustainable development under climate change, breeding and genetics, reproduction and pathology, nutrition, meat and fibre production and fibre metrology. Publication of this book is supported by the Animal Fibre Working Group of the European Federation of Animal Science (EAAP). ‘Advances in Fibre Production Science in South American Camelids and other Fibre Animals’ addresses issues of importance to scientists and animal breeders, textile processors and manufacturers, specialised governmental policy makers and students studying veterinary, animal and applied biological sciences.