DescriptionThis book contextualises the historical and current causes for the divisive reality that characterises the region. The first part focuses on the identification of threats operating in the political, societal, economic and environmental sectors. It argues that due to security interdependence these security sectors are inextricably connected to the extent that threats originating in one sector have the potential of causing – through a spillover process – the emergence of security threats in other sectors. The second part investigates the impact of demography, geography, the environment, available resources, migration patterns as well as science and technology on Middle Eastern security dynamics. The third part focuses on topics such as the role and effectiveness of regional human rights organizations, the causes of religious radicalisation, the use of religion to justify political conflicts, the role and strategy of regional violent non-state actors, and how the Arab Spring has challenged institutional structures and relationships in the Middle East.